General Awareness & Diseases


Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream.Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver,where they mature. After several days,the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells. Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open.The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in symptoms that occur in cycles that last two to three days at a time. Malaria is typically found in tropical and subtropical climates where the parasites can live. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria. The symptoms of malaria typically develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. In some people, symptoms may not develop for several months. Some malarial parasites can enter the body but will be dormant for long periods of time. Common symptoms of malaria include:

(1) shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe

(2) high fever

(3) profuse sweating

(4) headache

(5) nausea

(6) vomiting

(7) abdominal pain

(8) diarrhea

(9) anemia

(10) muscle pain

(11) convulsions

(12) coma

(12) bloody stools

TREATMENT: Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria. During your appointment, your doctor will review your health history, including any recent travel to tropical climates. A physical exam will also be performed. Your doctor will be able to determine if you have an enlarged spleen or liver. If you have symptoms of malaria, your doctor may order additional blood tests to confirm your diagnosis. These tests will show:

(1) Whether you have malaria

(2) What type of malaria you have

(3) If your infection is caused by a parasite that’s resistant to certain types of drugs

(4) If the disease has caused anemia

(5) If the disease has affected your vital organs Malaria can cause a number of life-threatening complications.

The following may occur:

(1) Swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, or cerebral malaria

(2) An accumulation of fluid in the lungs that causes breathing problems, or pulmonary edema

(3) Organ failure of the kidneys, liver, or spleen

(4) Anemia due to the destruction of red blood cells

(5) Low blood sugar



SYMPTOMS: A high blood sugar level can cause several symptoms, including: * Blurry vision *Excess thirst * Fatigue * Frequent urination * Hunger *Weight loss.

CAUSES: To understand diabetes, it is important to first understand the normal process by which food is broken down and used by the body for energy.Several things happen when food is digested: A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel for the body.An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The role of insulin is to move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where it can be stored or used as fuel. People with diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar from the blood into muscle and fat cells to be burned or stored for energy, and because their liver makes too much glucose and releases it into the blood. This is because either: * Their pancreas does not make enough insulin * Their cells do not respond to insulin normally * Both of the above There are two major types of diabetes. The causes and risk factors are different for each type: Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. This is because the pancreas cells that make insulin stop working. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. Type 2 diabetes is much more common. It most often occurs in adulthood, but because of high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with this disease. Some people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. 

TREATMENT: Type 2 diabetes may be reversed with lifestyle changes, especially losing weight with exercise and by eating healthier foods. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can also be improved with weight-loss surgery. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Treating either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar level. Getting better control over your blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels helps reduce the risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system disease, heart attack, and stroke. To prevent diabetes complications, visit your health care provider at least two to four times a year. Talk about any problems you are having. Follow your health care provider's instructions on managing your diabetes.


HOW DO PEOPLE GET TYPHOID FEVER: Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water. People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage.About 3%-5% of people become carriers of the bacteria after the acute illness. Others suffer a very mild illness that goes unrecognized. These people may become long-term carriers of the bacteria -- even though they have no symptoms -- and be the source of new outbreaks of typhoid fever for many years.

HOW IS TYPHOID FEVER DIAGNOSED: After the ingestion of contaminated food or water, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily. The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply and reenter the bloodstream. People develop symptoms, including fever, at this point. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, they multiply in high numbers. The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be identified in stool samples. If a test result isn't clear, blood or urine samples will be taken to make a diagnosis.


CAUSES OF CONSTIPATION: Man suffering with constipation A diet that contains a good quantity of fiber helps prevent constipation. Constipation happens when the colon absorbs too much water; this can occur if the muscles in the colon are contracting slowly or poorly, causing the stool to move too slowly and lose more water. Most common causes of Constipation:

1) Lack of fiber in diet

2) Physical inactivity

3) Some drugs

4) Milk

5) Irritable bowel syndrome

6) Pregnancy

8) Changes in routine

10) Not going to the toilet when needed

11) Not drinking enough water (dehydration)

TREATMENTS FOR CONSTIPATION: In the majority of cases, constipation resolves itself without any treatment or risk to health. The treatment of recurring constipation can include lifestyle changes such as doing more exercise, eating more fiber, and drinking more water. Usually, laxatives will successfully treat most cases of constipation - but should be used with care and only when necessary. In more difficult cases, the person may need a prescription medication. It is important to understand the cause of constipation - there could be an underlying illness or condition. Some people with recurring constipation use a daily diary where they record their bowel movements, stool characteristics, and other factors that may help both the doctor and patient devise the best treatment. Some gastroenterologist comment that there are people who do not allocate enough time for their defecation. Set aside enough time to allow your toilet visit to be unstressed and uninterrupted, and do not ignore an urge to have a bowel movement.


CAUSES: The cause of heat stroke is in a prolonged direct sunlight on the unprotected head and neck. The heat radiation of sunlight can cause irritation of the meninges and the brain tissue.This can lead to inflammation cause of the meninges (meningitis), which can permanently damage the brain result in particularly serious cases.

SYMPTOMS: In a heat stroke, the body’s temperature regulation mechanisms fall out: The body is no longer able to release heat and cool the body through perspiration.Therefore, the skin of a heat stroke sufferers is hot, dry and very red – usually all over the body. Some other symptoms of heat stroke are as fallows.

(1) Significantly increased body temperature of over 40 degrees Celsius

(2) Weak but rapid pulse, headache.

(3) Nausea and vomiting,

(4)  Restlessness and dizziness,

(5)  Drop in blood pressure,

(6)  Possible unconsciousness, convulsions or paralysis.

TREATMENTS: If you suspect sunstroke at a person, you should perform the following actions:

(1) Bring the patient into the shadows. Place it flat on the floor and store the head and torso slightly higher.

(2) Cool the head and neck with damp, cool cloth or a cold compress.

(3) Call an ambulance if the person’s condition does not improve within a few minutes. If the person is unconscious, you should immediately contact a doctor.

(4) Watch the person until the arrival of the doctor carefully and check regularly consciousness and breathing.

(5) If the affected person is unconscious, you should bring them in the recovery position. Can you find no normal breathing, a cardiopulmonary resuscitation must be performed.


FATIGUE SYMPTOMS: Fatigue is a symptom that usually has some underlying cause. Fatigue may be described by people in different ways, and may include some combination of the following (both mental and physical):

(1) weakness,

(2) lack of energy,

(3) Constantly tired or exhausted,

(4) lack of motivation,

(5) Difficulty concentrating, and/or

(6) Difficulty starting and completing tasks.

Other symptoms such as fainting or loss of consciousness (syncope), near-syncope, rapid heartbeat (palpitations), dizziness or vertigo may also be described as part of the fatigue experienced by the affected individual. If a person experiences any of the following with or without associated fatigue, they should go to the doctor.


A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms, and it is often called the "silent killer." While undetected, it can cause damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs, such as the kidneys. Long-term hypertension can cause complications through atherosclerosis, where the formation of plaque results in the narrowing of blood vessels. This makes hypertension worse, as the heart must pump harder to deliver blood to the body. Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can lead to:

(1) heart failure and heart attacks

(2) An aneurysm, or an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery that can burst, causing severe bleeding and, in some cases, death

(3) kidney failure

(4) stroke

(5) amputation

(6) hypertensive retinopathies in the eye, which can lead to blindness.

TREATMENT:  Lifestyle choices can contribute to the treatment and prevention of high blood pressure, and they can have wider benefits for the heart and overall health. SALT RESTRICTION: Average salt intake is between 9 grams (g) and 12 g a day in most countries around the world. The WHO recommend reducing intake to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems. This can benefit people both with and without hypertension, but those with hypertension will benefit the most. Regular blood pressure testing can help people avoid the more severe complications. MORE FRUIT AND VEGETABLES:People who have or who are at risk of high blood pressure are advised to minimize intake of saturated fat and total fat. RECOMMENDED INSTEAD ARE:

(1) Whole-grain, high-fibre foods


(3) Beans, pulses, and nuts

(4) Omega-3-rich fish twice a week

(5) Non-tropical vegetable oils, for example, olive oil

(6) Skinless poultry and fish

(7) Low-fat dairy products